NDAs (Non-Disclosure Agreements): A guide to secrecy

Explore NDAs (Non-Disclosure Agreements): types, how to draft, benefits, best practices, common mistakes. Secure sensitive data effectively.
NDAs (Non-Disclosure Agreements): 101

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In today’s fast-paced and competitive world, protecting confidential information is crucial for individuals and businesses alike. Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) play a vital role in safeguarding sensitive data. In this article, we will explore the different types of NDA contracts and provide insights on how to implement them effectively.

Non-Disclosure Agreements, commonly known as NDAs, are legal contracts that establish a confidential relationship between the parties involved. They outline the terms and conditions for sharing and protecting sensitive information. By signing an NDA, the involved parties agree to keep the disclosed information private and refrain from sharing it with unauthorized individuals or entities.

Types of NDA Contracts

Types of NDA Contracts
Types of NDA Contracts

NDA contracts, or Non-Disclosure Agreements, are legal documents that protect confidential information shared between parties. They ensure that sensitive information remains private and can’t be shared with others without permission. By creating a contractual framework that addresses uncertain outcomes, these agreements provide a degree of protection and stability for the contracting parties. NDA contracts are of different types:

1. Unilateral NDA

A Unilateral NDA, also known as a One-Way NDA, is a standard type of NDA that involves only one party disclosing confidential information to another party. In this arrangement, the disclosing party shares sensitive information with the recipient party, who becomes legally bound not to disclose or use that information for any unauthorized purpose. Unilateral NDAs are commonly used when a company or an individual shares proprietary information with employees, contractors, or potential business partners.

Unilateral NDAs are especially beneficial for businesses and entrepreneurs who want to protect their intellectual property, such as trade secrets, product designs, or marketing strategies. By having the recipient party sign a Unilateral NDA, the disclosing party can share sensitive information with confidence, knowing that it will remain confidential.

2. Mutual NDA/ Bilateral NDA

The Bilateral NDA, also known as a Two-Way NDA or Mutual NDA, is a more balanced agreement where both parties involved exchange confidential information with one another. This type of NDA is suitable for situations where both parties need to share sensitive data, and both parties want the assurance that their information will be kept confidential.

In a Bilateral NDA, both the disclosing and the recipient parties have the same obligations and responsibilities to maintain confidentiality. This mutual exchange of information often occurs during potential mergers, joint ventures, or collaborations. The Bilateral NDA fosters trust between the parties and encourages open communication, as both sides are equally invested in protecting each other’s confidential information.

3. Multilateral NDA

The Multilateral NDA involves three or more parties who agree to share confidential information amongst themselves. This type of NDA is common in complex business transactions, where multiple parties need to exchange sensitive data. The Multilateral NDA sets forth the terms and conditions for confidentiality among all parties involved.

Multilateral NDAs are essential in scenarios such as consortiums, strategic alliances, or research partnerships, where several entities collaborate on a project or share proprietary knowledge. By establishing a multilateral confidentiality agreement, all parties can ensure that the information exchanged remains secure and is not disclosed to external parties without explicit.

Related Article: 7 Key Contract Clauses Found In Business Contracts

How to Create NDAs: A Step-by-Step Guide

How to Create an NDA: A Step-by-Step Guide
How to Create NDAs: A Step-by-Step Guide

Crafting a well-structured and comprehensive Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) is essential to protect your confidential information effectively. Whether you are an individual or a business entity, follow these steps to create an NDA that meets your specific needs:

1. Clearly Identify the Parties Involved

Begin the NDA by clearly stating the names and details of all parties involved in the agreement. This includes the disclosing party (the one sharing the confidential information) and the recipient party (the one receiving the information). Ensure that each party’s legal name and contact information are accurately mentioned.

2. Define the Confidential Information

Next, provide a detailed definition of the information that will be considered confidential under the agreement. Specify the types of data, documents, trade secrets, proprietary technology, or any other sensitive information that the parties wish to protect.

3. State the Purpose of the NDA

Clearly outline the purpose of the NDA. Describe the specific reasons for sharing the confidential information and the intended use of that information by the recipient. This section ensures that both parties are aware of the agreement’s scope and purpose.

4. Set the Duration of Confidentiality

Determine the duration of the NDA’s validity. Specify the start date and the end date for which the confidentiality obligations will be in effect. Depending on the nature of the information, NDAs can be short-term or have no specific expiration date.

5. Include Exclusions from Confidentiality

Identify any information that will not be considered confidential and, therefore, not subject to the NDA’s restrictions. Common exclusions may include publicly available information, information received from third parties without a confidentiality obligation, or information developed independently by the recipient.

6. Outline Obligations of the Recipient

Detail the specific obligations of the recipient party concerning the confidential information. This may include strict requirements to maintain confidentiality, restrictions on disclosure to third parties, and the use of the information only for the specified purpose.

7. Address Permitted Disclosures

In some cases, it may be necessary for the recipient to disclose confidential information to certain individuals or entities. Include provisions that permit such disclosures under certain circumstances, but only with the disclosing party’s prior written consent.

8. State the Consequences of the Breach

Clearly outline the consequences that may result from a breach of the NDA. Specify the legal remedies available to the injured party, which may include monetary damages, injunctive relief, or other equitable remedies.

9. Governing Law and Jurisdiction

Determine the governing law under which the NDA will be interpreted and enforced. Additionally, specify the jurisdiction where any legal disputes arising from the agreement will be addressed.

Related Article: Sale On Approval Contracts: A Comprehensive Guide

Benefits of Non-Disclosure Agreements

Benefits of Non-Disclosure Agreements
Benefits of Non-Disclosure Agreements

Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) offer several significant benefits to both individuals and businesses:

1. Protecting Sensitive Information

The primary purpose of an NDA is to safeguard confidential and proprietary information from unauthorized disclosure. By establishing clear terms of confidentiality, the disclosing party can trust that their sensitive data remains secure.

2. Maintaining a Competitive Advantage

For businesses, NDAs are instrumental in preserving their competitive edge. By keeping trade secrets, intellectual property, and proprietary processes confidential, companies can maintain their uniqueness and stay ahead of competitors.

3. Encouraging Collaborations and Partnerships

NDAs build trust between parties, facilitating collaborations, joint ventures, and partnerships. When both parties are confident that their information will be protected, they are more likely to engage in mutually beneficial ventures.

4. Preserving Innovation and Creativity

Inventors, creators, and innovators can protect their original ideas and creative works through NDAs. This allows them to share their concepts with potential investors or partners without the fear of idea theft.

5. Legal Recourse in Case of Breach

Having an NDA in place provides a legal framework for recourse if the recipient party breaches the agreement. The injured party can seek damages and injunctions to stop further disclosure of confidential information.

Related Article: Negotiating Adhesion Contracts: Contracts That Stick!

NDA: Best Practices

NDA: Best Practices
NDA: Best Practices

1. Clearly Define Confidential Information

Defining what constitutes “confidential information” is the cornerstone of a robust NDA. Use specific language to outline the types of data covered by the agreement. This could include proprietary technology, customer lists, financial information, and more.

2. Specify Permitted Uses

Outline the permissible purposes for which the confidential information can be used. Whether it’s for product development, marketing, or strategic planning, clearly state the authorized intentions. This prevents misunderstandings and potential breaches.

3. Determine the Duration of Confidentiality

Set a clear timeframe for how long the confidentiality obligations will last. The duration should be reasonable and aligned with the nature of the information. Consider factors such as industry standards and the potential lifespan of the data.

4. Include Non-Circumvention Clauses

To prevent parties from bypassing the agreement and engaging directly, incorporate non-circumvention clauses. This ensures that all involved parties honor the confidentiality and do not exploit the information for personal gain.

5. Consult Legal Professionals

Drafting an NDA requires legal expertise. Collaborate with experienced attorneys who specialize in contract law. Their insights can help you navigate the complexities, ensuring your NDA is comprehensive and enforceable.

Related Article: Clickwrap Agreements 101: Are They Enforceable?

NDA: Common Mistakes to Avoid

NDA: Common Mistakes to Avoid
NDA: Common Mistakes to Avoid

1. Ambiguous Language

Vague or ambiguous terms can lead to confusion and disputes. Avoid using overly broad language that could encompass unrelated information. Be precise in defining the scope of confidential data.

2. Neglecting Reciprocal Obligations

NDAs should impose obligations on all parties involved. Neglecting to include reciprocal obligations can create an imbalance and weaken the enforceability of the agreement.

3. Ignoring Applicable Laws

Laws regarding NDAs vary by jurisdiction. Failing to consider local regulations and legal precedents can render your NDA unenforceable. Conduct thorough research or seek legal counsel to ensure compliance.

4. Poorly Defined Remedies

Clearly stipulate the remedies for breaches of the NDA. Without well-defined consequences, enforcing the agreement becomes challenging. Adequate remedies act as a deterrent against breaches.

5. Inadequate Signatory Authority

Ensure that signatories have the authority to bind the parties they represent. A lack of proper signatory authority can render the NDA invalid, leaving your sensitive information exposed.


1. When should I use a One-Way NDA?

You should use a One-Way NDA when you, as a disclosing party, want to share confidential information with another party (the recipient), but you do not require any sensitive information from the recipient in return.

2. How does a Two-Way NDA differ from a One-Way NDA?

Unlike a One-Way NDA, where only one party shares confidential information, a Two-Way NDA involves both parties exchanging sensitive data. This mutual exchange of information benefits both parties involved in a potential collaboration or business relationship.

3. Can I use the same NDA for different types of projects?

While some generic NDAs may be suitable for multiple projects, it is advisable to tailor the NDA according to the specific needs and requirements of each project. Customizing the NDA ensures that all the necessary clauses are included and that the agreement aligns with the unique circumstances of the project.

4. What happens if a party breaches the terms of the NDA?

If a party breaches the terms of the NDA by disclosing confidential information without authorization, the injured party can take legal action to seek damages, injunctions, or other remedies. Courts generally take NDAs seriously and enforce them when the breach is proven.

5. Can NDAs be perpetual?

While some NDAs may have no specified expiration date, most NDAs have a limited term during which the confidentiality obligations remain in effect. The duration of the NDA should be reasonable and aligned with the information’s sensitivity.

6. Are NDAs only for businesses?

No, NDAs are not exclusively for businesses. Individuals, celebrities, artists, researchers, and various professionals can also use NDAs to protect their confidential information in specific situations.


Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) are vital tools for protecting sensitive information in various contexts. Understanding the different types of NDA contracts, such as unilateral, mutual, financial, employment, and vendor NDAs, allows individuals and businesses to choose the most appropriate form of protection. By following the steps outlined in implementing NDA contracts and seeking legal advice when necessary, you can effectively safeguard confidential information and mitigate risks of unauthorized disclosure or misuse.

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